By American Petroleum Institute
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Additional resources for API STD 521 Guide for Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems Petroleum petrochemical and natural gas industries—Pressurerelieving and depressuring systems
The criterion is supported by previous incidents and tests that have shown that pool fire flames can follow the underside profile of spheres resulting in the entire bottom hemisphere being exposed to a high fire-heat load. --``````,`,,,`,`,,,,,,```,`` Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=US mvd from 2458000/5940240030 Not for Resale, 06/17/2009 13:11:36 MDT Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems 37 Table 5 — Effects of fire on the wetted surfaces of a vessel Portion of liquid inventory Remarks Liquid-full, such as treaters All up to the height of 7,6 m (25 ft).
If the fluid properties vary significantly with temperature, the worst-case temperature should be used. Alternatively, more sophisticated calculation methods that include temperature-dependent fluid properties can be used to optimize the size of the relief device. --``````,`,,,`,`,,,,,,```,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Copyright American Petroleum Institute Provided by IHS under license with API No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=US mvd from 2458000/5940240030 Not for Resale, 06/17/2009 13:11:36 MDT Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems 33 For liquid-full systems, expansion rates for the sizing of relief devices that protect against thermal expansion of the trapped liquids can be approximated using Equation (1), in SI units, or Equation (2) in USC units: q= α v ⋅φ (1) 1 000d ⋅ c where q is the volume flow rate at the flowing temperature, expressed in cubic metres per second; α v is the cubic expansion coefficient for the liquid at the expected temperature, expressed in 1/°C; NOTE This information is best obtained from the process-design data; however, Table 3 shows typical values for hydrocarbon liquids and water at 15,6 °C.
Q = C1·F ·A ws0,82 (6) where is the total heat absorption (input) to the wetted surface, expressed in W (Btu/h); Q --``````,`,,,`,`,,,,,,```,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- C1 is a constant [= 43 200 in SI units (21 000 in USC units)]; F is an environment factor (see Table 6); A ws is the total wetted surface, expressed in square metres (square feet). 1 and Table 5. NOTE 2 The expression, A ws0,82, is the area exposure factor or ratio. This ratio recognizes the fact that large vessels are less likely than small ones to be completely exposed to the flame of an open fire.
API STD 521 Guide for Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems Petroleum petrochemical and natural gas industries—Pressurerelieving and depressuring systems by American Petroleum Institute