Download Arctic Pipeline Planning. Design, Construction, and by Ramesh Singh PDF

By Ramesh Singh

ISBN-10: 0124165842

ISBN-13: 9780124165847

Utilize the latest advancements to strive against demanding situations comparable to ice mechanics. the best better half for engineers wishing to benefit state of the art tools or extra improve their wisdom of most sensible perform thoughts, Arctic Pipeline Planning presents a operating wisdom of the expertise and strategies for laying pipelines within the coldest areas of the area. Arctic Pipeline Planning offers must-have components that may be applied via all levels of arctic pipeline making plans and development. This comprises details on how to:

  • Solve demanding situations in designing arctic pipelines
  • Protect pipelines from daily threats reminiscent of ice gouging and permafrost
  • Maintain defense and conversation for development staff whereas assisting commonplace codes and criteria
  • Covers such matters as land survey, trenching or above floor, environmental influence of construction
  • Provides on-site problem-solving thoughts applied via all stages of arctic pipeline making plans and construction
  • Is packed with easy-to-read and comprehensible tables and bullet lists

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Extra info for Arctic Pipeline Planning. Design, Construction, and Equipment

Sample text

The real threat is associated with the fact that often SCADA users assume that a virtual private network (VPN) provides the required protection. This assumption of false security is the real threat. It may be noted that physical access to SCADA-related network jacks and switches allows saboteurs to bypass all security on the control software and take full control of the SCADA network. A system of endpoint-to-endpoint authentication and authorization should Pipeline System Communication 57 be established to protect the integrity and the security of the system.

CHAPTER 4 Pipeline System Communication The transportation of oil and gas through pipeline systems is accomplished by adding compression stations approximately every 50À100 miles. In addition, safety shut-in valves are also included at critical places in a pipeline. Pipeline pressures and flows are typically monitored and/or controlled with SCADA systems using remote terminal units (RTUs), programmable logic controllers (PLCs), and by satellite, microwave, or telephone communication links. These controls are subject to interruption from loss of communication and interference by knowledgeable third-party intruders.

Hardware for some SCADA systems is rigged in design to withstand temperature, vibration, and voltage extremes. In the most critical installations, reliability is enhanced by having redundant hardware and communications channels, up to the point of having multiple fully equipped control centers. A failing part can be quickly identified and its functionality automatically taken over by backup hardware. A failed part can often be replaced without interrupting the process. The reliability of such systems can be calculated statistically and is stated as the mean time to failure (MTF), which is a variant of mean time between failures (MTBF).

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Arctic Pipeline Planning. Design, Construction, and Equipment by Ramesh Singh


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