By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu
When Mustafa Kemal Atatürk grew to become the 1st president of Turkey in 1923, he set approximately reworking his state right into a secular republic the place nationalism sanctified via science--and through the character cult Atatürk created round himself--would reign perfect because the new faith. This e-book offers the 1st in-depth examine the highbrow lifetime of the Turkish Republic's founder. In doing so, it frames him in the old context of the turbulent age during which he lived, and explores the uneasy transition from the past due Ottoman imperial order to the fashionable Turkish nation via his lifestyles and ideas.
laying off mild on some of the most complicated and enigmatic statesmen of the fashionable period, M. Sükrü Hanioglu takes readers from Atatürk's adolescence as a Muslim boy within the unstable ethnic cauldron of Macedonia, to his schooling in nonreligious and army colleges, to his embody of Turkish nationalism and the modernizing younger Turks circulation. Who was once this determine who sought glory as an bold younger officer in global struggle I, defied the triumphant Allies reason on partitioning the Turkish heartland, and defeated the final sultan? Hanioglu charts Atatürk's highbrow and ideological improvement at each degree of his lifestyles, demonstrating how he used to be profoundly prompted by way of the hot principles that have been circulating within the sprawling Ottoman realm. He exhibits how Atatürk drew on a distinct mixture of scientism, materialism, social Darwinism, positivism, and different theories to style a grand utopian framework on which to construct his new nation.
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16 chapter 1 lectuals produced many journals such as Gonce-i Edeb (Bud of Learning), Mecelle-i Mu῾allimîn (Teachers’ Journal), Mezra῾a-i Maarif (Field of Education), and Tuhfetü᾽l-Edebiye li-Evlâdi᾽lVataniye (The Gift of Literature to the Children of Patriotism). The school system in the city also underwent major change, as new institutions emerged to provide a modern education that traditional ones refused to adopt. The old sixteenth-century schools, like the Yakub Pasha Medresesi, the Talmud Torah Seminary, or the Greek Grammar School, had persisted in ignoring the challenges posed by modernity.
1839–61) unusual visit in 1859—and because of its cosmopolitan character, which amplified the force of reforms targeting the empire’s non-Muslim communities. In addition, the influx of European (including Jewish) capital into Salonica empowered local reformers who wished to enhance the city’s infrastructure, and accelerated the pace of change. The Law of Provinces, issued in 1864, restructured provincial administration, but also established municipal administrations on the French model. The new municipality of Salonica demolished the city’s sea walls and drained the surrounding marshes in the 1870s.
1, 1903–1915 (Istanbul: Kaynak Yayınları, 1998), 165. fin-de-si�cle salonica 29 manufacturing sector. In an economy powered by imports rather than domestic production, trade naturally came to be central. And it was in the mercantile sector that Muslims suffered the greatest disadvantages. There were a number of aspects to this. First, European merchants benefited enormously from new liberal trade policies, and through partnerships with non-Muslim Ottomans came to control a sizable portion of Ottoman commerce.
Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography by M. Şükrü Hanioğlu