By Torben Jespen
This booklet info how security (i.e. the absence of unacceptable dangers) is ensured in components the place probably explosive atmospheres (ATEX) can come up. The e-book additionally deals readers crucial details on the way to conform to the most recent (April 2016) european laws whilst the presence of ATEX can't be avoided.
By proposing common counsel on concerns coming up out of the european ATEX laws – specially on sector category, explosion chance evaluate, apparatus categorization, Ex-marking and similar technical/chemical elements – the publication presents apparatus brands, liable employers, and others with the fundamental wisdom they should be ready to comprehend the various – and sometimes advanced – elements of ATEX and to enforce the required defense precautions. As such, it represents a invaluable source for all these inquisitive about keeping excessive degrees of defense in ATEX environments.
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Extra info for ATEX—Explosive Atmospheres: Risk Assessment, Control and Compliance
For equipment having a max surface temperature greater than 450 °C, only the max temperature value shall be speciﬁed in the marking. Equipment of Group II G, designed and marked for use in a particular gas, does not need temperature speciﬁcations. Dust equipment (Group II D, category 1, 2 and 3) Max surface temperature of equipment for use in dust atmospheres is generally not indicated by the use of temperature classes, but by stating the actual max temperature value. At equipment selection, the indicated/marked max temperature (Tmax) must therefore be compared with the dust cloud minimum ignition temperature (Tig) and/or the dust layer minimum ignition temperature (indicated by Tlig or Ts), both having been adjusted by an appropriate safety margin.
G. glass contra iron rust) with which the flammable mixture is in contact can affect the value very much. Tig is an important parameter for the explosion risk assessment and equipment selection—see also Chap. 5, but does not enter zone classiﬁcation deliberations. As the temperature equipment classiﬁcation code for ATEX equipment in Group IIG is also used as a characterizing parameter attached to the respective gas/vapours, this code should be mentioned here. 3. 3 Temperature class codes Class code Max surface temp.
Some gases as ammonia, which has minimum ignition energy of around 680 mJ deviate signiﬁcantly from the typical value. Minimum ignition energy is not used in hazardous area classiﬁcation, but of use in equipment selection (and stated in the Ex-marking). The low ignition energy Group IIC, exempliﬁed by hydrogen, is the group requiring the most attention. Apparatus marked for Group IIC can also be used for IIB and IIA gasses, and apparatus marked for Group IIB is also suitable for IIA, but not for IIC.
ATEX—Explosive Atmospheres: Risk Assessment, Control and Compliance by Torben Jespen