By Karl F. Nordstrom
This ebook analyzes the tradeoffs fascinated by restoring shorelines and dunes on intensively built coasts, the simplest ways to take advantage of, and the how you can train and contain stakeholders. It identifies recovery concepts that improve normal procedures and make coastal landforms extra dynamic whereas holding their price for shore defense. as well as ecological values, the idea that of recovery is increased to incorporate actual, fiscal, social and moral rules. Compromise administration options are urged to deal with the wishes of other person teams, together with municipal managers and person homeowners. The technique of overcoming inertia or antagonism to environmentally pleasant activities also are mentioned. The e-book is written for coastal scientists, engineers, planners and bosses, and serves as an invaluable supplementary reference textual content for classes in coastal administration, ecology and environmental ethics.
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Extra resources for Beach and Dune Restoration
Gravel nourishment projects are often conducted at small scale in keeping with the generally small size of gravel beaches in nature. Gravel borrow areas can be more limited in extent than sand borrow areas, placing doubt about the long-term availability in some regions (Arthurton 1998). xml QC: SFK/UKS CUUK181-Nordstrom T1: SFK 9780521853460 June 18, 2008 10:50 Beach nourishment and impacts 25 the beach for feeding (Burger et al. 1977; Connors et al. 1981). These studies are often used to assess potential effects of nourishment projects, although they may not themselves be written in a nourishment context.
Checklist of factors to consider in assessing impacts of dredging and fill on fauna Characteristics of biota Species type, abundance, average size Biomass, community structure Lifespan Preferred substrate type Feeding mode Mobility/type of movement Number of spawns/yr and time of spawns Life stage (egg, larva, hatchling, adult) Potential effects on biota Direct mortality Disturbance Disorientation Nest site selection Nesting success Alterations to embryonic development Time to recovery Project design Type of dredge Time of dredging and placement (seasonal, day/night, nesting times) Need for, and placement of, pipelines and equipment Method of fill disposal Actions to contain runoff/spillage/turbidity Relationship of design profile to final landforms reworked by waves and winds Need for reshaping with bulldozers Method of constructing dunes Need for planting or seeding vegetation Provisions for monitoring and adaptive management Potential alterations to borrow/fill areas Creation of depressions, furrows Alteration of wave climate, refraction patterns, current patterns, and velocities Change in mobility of substrate and bedforms Change in beach morphology, erosion rate Increased turbidity Sediment characteristics Alternative sediment sources Grain size, sorting, shape Silt/clay content Chemical composition of sediments Pollutants, including seeds of exotic vegetation Expected effect on gas diffusion, moisture content, ground water flow Hardness and roundness of particles and compaction of fill after placement Potential for scarp formation Color Mitigation/management techniques Beach tilling Scarp leveling Moving nests Controlling uses of new resource (including opportunistic endangered species) Sources: Diaz et al.
Beach nourishment is often called beach restoration but beaches are not restored simply by placing a volume of sediment on a coast (Nordstrom 2000). The considerable shore protection and recreational values of nourished beaches are well documented (Dean 2002; G´omez-Pina et al. 2004; Reid et al. 2005). This book focuses on the way existing management practices can be evaluated and modified to achieve restoration goals. No attempt is made to provide guidelines for traditional fill practices, evaluate fill longevity, discuss the social or economic advantages and disadvantages, or evaluate the long-term feasibility of beach nourishment projects.
Beach and Dune Restoration by Karl F. Nordstrom