By Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre, the seminal smarty-pants of mid-century pondering, introduced the existentialist fleet with the book of Being and Nothingness in 1943. notwithstanding the booklet is thick, dense, and unfriendly to careless readers, it's vital to these drawn to the philosophy of awareness and unfastened will. a few of his arguments are wrong, others are doubtful, yet for the main half Sartre's ideas penetrate deeply into basic philosophical territory. Basing his belief of self-consciousness loosely on Heidegger's "being," Sartre proceeds to sharply delineate among wakeful activities ("for themselves") and subconscious ("in themselves"). it's a unsleeping selection, he claims, to reside one's existence "authentically" and in a unified type, or not--this is the elemental freedom of our lives.
Drawing on background and his personal wealthy mind's eye for examples, Sartre deals compelling vitamins to his extra formal arguments. The waiter who detaches himself from his job-role sticks within the reader's reminiscence with larger tenacity than the long dialogue of inauthentic lifestyles and serves to carry the complete strength of the argument to existence. whether you're now not an angst-addicted poet from North seashore, Being and Nothingness provides you with a deep dialog with an excellent mind--unfortunately, a unprecedented locate nowadays.
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Extra resources for Being and Nothingness
Of course consciousness can know and know itself. But it is in itself something other than a knowledge turned back upon itself. All consciousness, as Husserl has shown, is consciousness of something. " A table is not in consciousness-not even in the capacity of a representatirn. A table is in space, beside the window, etc. The existence of the table in fact is a center of opacity for consciousness; it would re quire an infinite process to inventory the total contents of a thing. To introduce this opacity into consciousness would be to refer to infinity the inventory which it can make of itself, to make consciousness a thing, and to deny the cogito.
Pleasure must not disappear behind its own self-consciousness; it is not a representation, it is a concrete event, full and absolute. It is no more a quality of self-consciousness than self-consciousness is a quality of pleasure. " T r . , , THE PURSUIT OF BEING Iv pleasure (unconscious or psychological) which receives subsequently the quality of "conscious" like a pencil of light rays. There is an indivisible, indissoluble being-definitely not a substance supporting its qualities like particles of being, but a being which is existence through and through.
But is not this inexhaustibility which implies a transcendence and a reference to the infinite-is this not an "hexis" at the exact moment xlviii 'II I I, 1 11. I'I BEING AND NOTHINGNESS when one apprehends it on the object? The essence finally is radically severed from the individual appearance which manifests it, since on prin ciple it is that which must be able to be manifested by an infinite series of individual manifestations. In thus replacing a variety of oppositions by a single dualism on which they all are based, have we gained or lost?
Being and Nothingness by Jean-Paul Sartre