By G.V. Chilingarian and T.F. Yen (Eds.)
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Extra resources for Bitumens, asphalts, and tar sands
The exceedingly slow process of diagenetic evolution a t normal temperatures will be, therefore, considerably speeded up a t higher temperatures, a statement which has been frequently confirmed by the analysis of organic matter with increasing depth [20,21,22]. , its exposure to adequate temperatures for increasing lengths of time, may be expected t o simulate natural evolution. R e q uired temperature The choice of the required, adequate temperature is delicate because it has t o reconcile the opposing imperatives of accuracy and speed.
It can be shown, however, that these heavy oils are not unique products generated under unusual circumstances from special sources, but are normal products of petroleum evolution that can readily be explained by established concepts of petroleum formation and alteration. Current concepts of petroleum formation and alteration The petroleum-formation process is generally accepted as the thermal transformation of complex soluble (bitumen) and insoluble (kerogen) organic substances dispersed in source sediments [ 13,16,17].
The latter type of reaction became progressively predominant as evolution proceeded. , involving the production of olefins) can only take place t o a limited extent [ 371. Secondary reactions are essential t o make them proceed quantitatively. Amongst these, hydrogenation by hydrogen donors such as naphthenic and aromatic compounds must eventually prevail [ 371. Owing t o dehydrogenation, the hydrogen donors can only condense t o polyaromatic structures and thus become increasingly insoluble and unfusible.
Bitumens, asphalts, and tar sands by G.V. Chilingarian and T.F. Yen (Eds.)