By Bernard Spolsky
Spolsky right here examines the stipulations below which languages are realized, and the way studying with regards to educating. His thought, set out within the kind of a choice version, emphasizes the necessity to be particular and transparent at the nature of the targets and results of studying, and to acknowledge the complexity of the concept that of "knowing a moment language."
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Additional info for Conditions for second language learning : introduction to a general theory
Chapter 7 looks at individual differences in ability and in personality. e. in functional terms, such tasks as reading and writing of academic material in formal language, and as performing abstract tests of structural knowledge) but is unrelated to the learning of a second language for informal and social functions, except perhaps in the case of older learners. Condition 28 Sound Discrimination condition (necessary, graded): The better a learner can discriminate between the sounds of the language and recognize the constituent parts, the more successful his or her learning of speaking and understanding a second language will be.
She prefers her own model, the ‘Capability Continuum Paradigm’. ). It is composed not so much of rules as of regularities. It is heterogeneous, made up of a continuum of styles. The critical controlling element is attention. It can be studied only by collecting natural speech material. Variability is more marked in careful styles, which are most permeable to first and second language interference. Learning is towards the vernacular. Learner interlanguages should meet all the constraints on natural languages; the system is not unique, but similar to first language acquisition, where there is evidence of dialect conflict.
The first task, then, is to investigate and establish the nature of K, the symbol for the outcome proposed at the end of the last chapter. One of the most severe criticisms that can be fairly levelled against the presentation of many existing methods and attempts at theories is that they talk about learning a language as a general goal and do not specify exactly what kind of learning of what aspects of language they are trying to account for, or what criterion they set for achievement. For example, on close examination, Krashen’s model turns out to be a theory of learning sentences in a second language.
Conditions for second language learning : introduction to a general theory by Bernard Spolsky