By Laura Vivanco
The idea of the 3 estates made transparent differences among the features of the 2 estates which comprised the elite of medieval society: the oradores (ecclesiastics) and the defensores (warriors or nobility). they'd diversified existence, garments and methods of puzzling over existence. with reference to demise, the responses dictated via Christian theology conflicted with the calls for of the defensor ideology, in keeping with the defence of person honour, the pursuit of fama and the demonstrate of earthly strength. This ebook charts the development of the death from their arrangements for demise, via their 'good' or 'bad' deaths, to their burials and otherworldly fates and in addition analyses the responses of the bereaved. by utilizing pre-fifteenth-century texts it really is attainable to illustrate that the clash among the orador and defensor ideologies didn't commence within the 15th century, yet relatively had a far older starting place, and it is strongly recommended that the clash persisted after 1500. Textual resources contain the Siete partidas, wills, chronicles, non secular works reminiscent of the Arte de bien morir and literary works similar to C?rcel de Amor and Celestina.
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Extra resources for Death in Fifteenth-Century Castile: Ideologies of the Elites (Monografías A)
En qualquier manera o por qualqujer causa que venga la muerte corporal, non debe aver enojo njn se deue turbar njn aver mjedo alguno, mas de grado, voluntariosamente e con todo el juyzio de la razón [. . ] rresçiba la muerte, e con mucha pasçiençia, conformando su voluntad de todo en todo con la voluntad de Dios. E así bien e seguramente podrá morir. (Arte ‘N’ 1990: 151) Unfortunately for the dying, this patience and endurance were not easily achieved. Although some died with relatively little physical pain, for others it was a slow and agonizing process, as in the case of Enrique IV: dióle un tan grand dolor de costado, y tan agudo que ningún reposo ni sosiego le dexaba tener; en tanto grado, que siempre le fue cresciendo, e nunca menguando, e duróle aquel dolor por espacio de diez horas.
In the miracle the previously avaricious Estevan dies in sin and is in great danger of having his soul dragged off to everlasting torment in Hell. Thanks to the intervention of the Virgin Mary and several saints he is returned to earth and given a second chance of dying well. This time he rights all the wrongs he has done in his life (an essential part of the making of a last will and testament, as we shall see), receives the last rites, and takes to his bed, praying right up to the last moment: Entregó ricamientre a los deseredados, a los qe tuerto tovo fízolos bien pagados, confessóse al preste de todos sos peccados, de quantos avié fechos e dichos e asmados.
3 This phrase, or variants of it, seem to have been common in wills of this period. According to Bejarano Rubio, ‘La encomendación del alma se suele hacer a Nuestro Redentor Jesucristo, al que se le reconoce su acto creador y redentor’ (1990: 37). 4 According to P. Fernando Rubio the dedication of the Jardín de nobles donzellas to the future Catholic Monarch, Isabel, was written between the death of her brother in July 1468 and her marriage to Fernando in October 1469 (Prosistas castellanos 1964: xxx).
Death in Fifteenth-Century Castile: Ideologies of the Elites (Monografías A) by Laura Vivanco