By G L Pickard and W. J. Emery (Auth.)
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Extra info for Descriptive Physical Oceanography. An Introduction
4). There is an upper zone of 50 to 200 m depth with temperatures similar to those at the surface, a zone below this extending from 200 to 1000 m in which the temperature decreases rapidly, and a deep zone in which the temperature changes slowly. Typical temperatures at low latitudes would be 20°C at the surface, 8°C at 500 m, 5°C at 1000 m and 2°C at 4000 m. The depth at which the temperature gradient (rate of decrease of temperature with increase of depth) is a maximum is called the thermocline.
Without gain or loss of heat) from its in situ depth to the sea surface. The potential temperature is computed from the in situ temperature and pressure (Fofonoff, 1977). 1 and in Fig. 8 taken from data of the Dutch Snellius Expedition (van Riel, 1934). 8(a) shows a sample vertical profile of in situ temperature t while Fig. 8(b) shows the profile of potential temperature Θ. It is seen that while t reaches a minimum at 3500 m and thereafter increases, θ decreases to the bottom. ) The effect of the correction from in situ to potential temperature is more dramatically shown in Fig.
6, plankton, silt, optical characteristics, etc. These, however, have to be used with care because they are not conservative. Biological processes may change the concentration of oxygen or nutrients without any movement of the water mass, silt may settle out (which may also change the optical properties), etc. These other constituents generally occur in such small concentrations that their variations do not significantly affect the density nor do they affect the relations between chlorinity, salinity and conductivity.
Descriptive Physical Oceanography. An Introduction by G L Pickard and W. J. Emery (Auth.)