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By Kolchin-Demidov

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Pressure of residual gases. Certain amount of residual gases is left in the charge from the previous cycle and occupies the volume 17, of the combustion chamber (see Figs. 2). The value of residual gas pressure is dependent on the number and arrangement of the valves, flow resistance in the intake and exhaust passages, valve timing, type of supercharging, speed of the engine, load, cooling system and other factors. For unsupercharged automobile and tractor engines and also for supercharged engines with exhaust to the atmosphere, the pressure of residual gases in MPa is Greater values of p i are used for high-speed engines.

36 PART ONE. WORKING PROCESSES AND CHARACTERISTICS The combined cycle. In this cycle heat is added both a t constant volume Q; and a t constant pressure Q; (see Fig. 1~): Q;=- k-lR T,ek-1 ( h- 1) is the heat added at a constant R value; Q;== Task-lkh(p- 1) is the heat applied at a cons- where t ant pressure. At Q; = Q1 and Q; = 0, all the heat is added Fig. 7. Pressure increase versus preexpansion ratio ( s = 16, Ql = Q; $ Q; = 80 MJ/kmole) + a t a constant volume and, therefore, this cycle becomes a cycle with heat added a t a constant volume.

High-speed diesel engines with open combustion chambers . . . . . . . . . . Diesel engines with divided combustion chambers Gas engines ................... 85 Smaller heat utilization factors are characteristic of engines with is increased on account of reducing unperfect mixing. The value of gas heat losses to the walls, selecting perfect shape combustion chambers, reducing aftercornbustion during the expansion process and selecting a n excess air factor providing for accelerated combustion of working mixture.

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Design of Automotive Engines by Kolchin-Demidov


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