By Prakash Gopalakrishnan
Cell-based layout methodologies have ruled structure new release of electronic circuits. regrettably, the turning out to be calls for for obvious procedure portability, elevated functionality, and low-level gadget sizing for timing/power are poorly dealt with in a set cellphone library.
Direct Transistor-Level format For electronic Blocks proposes a right away transistor-level format technique for small blocks of customized electronic good judgment instead that greater comprises calls for for device-level flexibility. This strategy captures crucial shape-level optimizations, but scales simply to netlists with millions of units, and accommodates timing optimization in the course of format. the major suggestion is early id of crucial diffusion-merged MOS equipment teams, and their upkeep in an uncommitted geometric shape till the very finish of designated placement. approximately talking, crucial teams are extracted early from the transistor-level netlist, positioned globally, optimized in the community, after which eventually dedicated every one to a selected shape-level shape whereas at the same time optimizing for either density and routability.
The crucial flaw in past efforts is an over-reliance on geometric assumptions from large-scale cell-based structure algorithms. person transistors could appear uncomplicated, yet they don't pack as gates do. Algorithms that forget about those shape-level concerns endure the implications while millions of units are poorly packed. The strategy defined during this e-book can pack units even more densely than a standard cell-based layout.
Direct Transistor-Level structure For electronic Blocks is a accomplished reference paintings on device-level structure optimization, that allows you to be worthwhile to CAD instrument and circuit designers.
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Additional info for Direct Transistor-level Layout for Digital Blocks
The parameter net_wt is an optional multiplier to scale the net’s importance. This is used, later on, for timing-driven placement. The x and y optimizations are separable and the solution is found by solving the following set of linear equations: We solved these equations using conjugate-gradient based methods provided in the LASPack library [Skalicky 96]. 2 Recursive Re-Partitioning In the style of PROUD, the quadratic solve & partitioning techniques are applied recursively to the resulting smaller partitions.
During this phase, clusters, that are the placeable objects, are modeled using an approximation for their widths & heights. This approximation does not affect the final result significantly, since the next placement phase (detailed placement) handles shape-level optimization. Also, as a convenient simplification, we assume the input/output pins are located along the boundary of the block. Chapter 3 Global Placement FIGURE 19. 2 Quadratic Placement and Partitioning We employ recursive re-partitioning-based quadratic placement, in the style of PROUD [Tsay 88].
2 respectively. 18 technology and present results from clustering. 2 Synthesis Target Library Comparison We compare the results of logic synthesis for a set of five benchmarks, synthesized using different target libraries. 3. Figure 13 shows the sizes of the various libraries in terms of the number of cells in the library and also its effect on the total number of gates in each of the five benchmarks. Note that as the library size increases, the number of gates in the netlists decreases, since synthesis has the option of choosing from complex cells.
Direct Transistor-level Layout for Digital Blocks by Prakash Gopalakrishnan