By David Riesman, Nathan Glazer, Reuel Denney
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Additional info for The Lonely Crowd: A Study of the Changing American Character (Study in National Policy)
The "transition" is likely to be violent, disrupting the stabilized paths of existence in societies in which tradition-direction has been the principal mode of insuring conformity. The imbalance of births and deaths puts pressure on the society's customary ways. A new slate of character structures is called for or finds its opportunity in coping with the rapid changes—and the need for still more changes—in the social organization. A definition of inner-direction. In western history the society that emerged with the Renaissance and Reformation and that is only now vanishing serves to illustrate the type of society in which inner-direction is the principal mode of securing conformity.
Individual and Social Origins of Neurosis," American Sociological Review, IX (1944), 380; reprinted in Personality in Nature, Society and Culture, edited by Clyde Kluckhohn and Henry Murray (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1948). 6 THE LONELY CROWD frustrated in later adult experience. ) I shall use the term "mode of conformity" interchangeably with the term "social character"—though certainly conformity is not all of social character: "mode of creativity" is as much a part of it. However, while societies and individuals may live well enough—if rather boringly—without creativity, it is not likely that they can live without some mode of conformity—even be it one of rebellion.
To them much of the discussion in the ensuing chapters is devoted. What is common to all the other-directed people is that their contemporaries are the source of direction for he individual—either those known to him or those with whom he is indirectly acquainted, through friends and through the mass media. This source is of course "internalized" in the sense that dependence on it for guidance in life is implanted early. The goals toward which the other-directed person strives shift with that guidance: it is only the process of striving itself and the process of paying close attention to the signals from others that remain unaltered throughout life.
The Lonely Crowd: A Study of the Changing American Character (Study in National Policy) by David Riesman, Nathan Glazer, Reuel Denney