By J. McLelland
This color atlas presents an advent to how birds are built. it truly is involved largely with the economically very important species, yet, the place their anatomy considerably range, the extra universal caged birds are handled. The publication is deliberate round definite physique structures together with the integument and skeleton and digestive, urogenital and respiration tracts. Lymphoid tissue, blood vessels and nerves are handled as they take place in organization with those structures. In a few circumstances, a instantly topographical procedure is taken. many of the photos are of unpolluted, unfixed fabric, a few have been curious about assistance from a dissecting microscope. the images are followed by way of a brief textual content which identifies a few of the positive aspects and explains their functionality.
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Extra info for A Colour Atlas of Avian Anatomy
Low-dose aspirin therapy can be used prophylactically in cats with myocardial disease. CLINICAL SIGNS • Acute onset of rear leg pain and paresis • Cold, bluish foot pads (decreased circulation) • Lack of palpable pulses in rear limbs • History or clinical findings of myocardial disease DIAGNOSIS • Clinical signs • Nonselective angiography if available TREATMENT • TPA (Activase [Genentech]): serves as a fibrolysin resulting in the breakdown of clots already formed in the vasculature or • Heparin: acts on coagulation factors in both the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways, inhibits the formation of a stable clot • Prophylaxis: aspirin TECH ALERT Aspirin use in cats can cause toxicities because of their inability to rapidly metabolize and excrete salicylates.
After the association of the disease with taurine deficiency, additional taurine was added to commercial diets, and the incidence of the disease significantly decreased. The pathologic condition is similar to DCM in dogs. Evidence has been found of a genetic predisposition to DCM in cats fed taurine-deficient diets. CLINICAL SIGNS • Older, mixed breed cats • Dyspnea • Inactivity • Anorexia • Acute lameness or paralysis, usually in the rear limbs • Pain and lack of circulation in the affected limbs • Hypothermia DIAGNOSIS • Clinical signs • ECG: Increased QRS voltages, wide P waves, ventricular arrhythmia • Ultrasonography: dilated heart chambers TREATMENT • Oral taurine supplementation: 250 to 500 mg/day • Furosemide: to reduce fluid load on the heart • Oxygen: to increase oxygen levels to the cells • Digoxin: to increase cardiac contractility and improve cardiac output • Enalapril: ACE inhibitor to prevent the formation of angiotensin II and decrease vascular resistance; improves cardiac output • Cutaneous nitroglycerin paste: vasodilation • Hydralazine: relaxes vascular smooth muscle and decreases peripheral resistance; improves cardiac output TECH ALERT Avoid intravenous (IV) fluid replacement in cats until pulmonary edema or pulmonary effusion is under control.
Blood flow to and from the pulmonary vascu- lature is minimal. This shunting results in hypoxemia, cyanosis, and secondary polycythemia (increased numbers of red blood cells). Right ventricular hypertrophy occurs. The murmur of pulmonic stenosis usually can be detected on the left hemithorax, and less often, the VSD murmur can be heard as well. CLINICAL SIGNS • Typical breed • Failure to grow • Cyanosis • Exercise intolerance, shortness of breath • Weakness • Syncope, seizures • Sudden death DIAGNOSIS • Radiology: normal-size heart, decreased pulmonary circulation • ECG: right ventricular hypertrophy, small left chambers, large subaortic VSD, and right outflow obstruction; bubble or Doppler studies indicate right-to-left shunting TREATMENT Surgical • Creation of a systemic to pulmonary systemic shunt has been successful in increasing pulmonary circulation, venous return, left-side heart size, and oxygen saturation in the systemic circulation.
A Colour Atlas of Avian Anatomy by J. McLelland