By Robert Service
Russia had a rare 20th century, present process upheaval and transformation. Updating his acclaimed History of recent Russia, Robert provider presents a wide ranging viewpoint on a rustic whose Soviet previous encompassed revolution, civil conflict, mass terror, and global wars. He indicates how seven many years of communist rule, which penetrated each point of Soviet existence, proceed to steer Russia this present day. This new version takes the tale from 2002 throughout the complete presidency of Vladimir Putin to the election of his successor, Dmitri Medvedev.
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Additional info for A History of Modern Russia: From Tsarism to the Twenty-First Century, Third Edition
Wages for workers in the Petrograd armaments plants probably rose slightly faster than inﬂation in 1914–15; but 31 a hi s t o r y o f m o d e r n r u s s i a thereafter they failed to keep pace – and the pay-rates in the capital were the highest in the country. 17 Wages in any case do not tell the whole story. Throughout the empire there was a deﬁcit in consumer products. Bread had to be queued for, and its availability was unreliable. Housing and sanitation fell into disrepair. All urban amenities declined in quality as the population of the towns swelled with rural migrants searching for factory work and with refugees ﬂeeing the German occupation.
Zemgor was also authorized to supplement the inadequate medical facilities near the front. But neither Zemgor under Prince Georgi Lvov nor 29 a hi s t o r y o f m o d e r n r u s s i a the War-Industry Committees under the Octobrist leader Alexander Guchkov were given much scope for initiative. Frustrated by this, opposition politicians in the State Duma, the War-Industry Committees and Zemgor started to discuss the possibilities of joint action against Nicholas – and often they met in the seclusion of freemason lodges.
Not only narodniki but also Marxists and liberals founded tenacious organizations in the 1890s. The culture of opposition was not conﬁned to the revolutionary activists. In the nineteenth century there was a remarkable expansion of education: secondary schools and universities proliferated and students were remarkably antagonistic to the regime. The methods of instruction and discipline grated upon young people. Nor did their unease disappear in adulthood. The tsarist order was regarded by them as a humiliating peculiarity that Russia should quickly remove.
A History of Modern Russia: From Tsarism to the Twenty-First Century, Third Edition by Robert Service