By Marco Picone, Stefano Busanelli, Michele Amoretti, Francesco Zanichelli, Gianluigi Ferrari
This booklet makes a speciality of rising applied sciences within the box of clever Transportation structures (ITSs) specifically effective details dissemination among cars, infrastructures, pedestrians and public transportation structures. It covers the state of the art of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), with centralized and decentralized (Peer-to-Peer) verbal exchange architectures, contemplating numerous software situations. With an in depth therapy of rising verbal exchange paradigms, together with pass networking and disbursed algorithms. in contrast to lots of the current books, this ebook provides a multi-layer evaluation of data dissemination structures, from decrease layers (MAC) to excessive layers (applications). All these facets are investigated contemplating using cellular units, comparable to smartphones/tablets and embedded platforms, i.e. applied sciences that in final years thoroughly replaced the present marketplace, the consumer expectancies, and conversation networks. The awarded networking paradigms are supported and verified through wide simulative research and actual box deployments in numerous program scenarios.
This ebook represents a reference for pro technologist, postgraduates and researchers within the sector of clever Transportation platforms (ITSs), instant verbal exchange and dispensed platforms.
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Extra info for Advanced Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems
Finally, V2I Bidirectional Communications are required by many mobility applications, such as navigation, Internet access for browsing or email, electronic transactions for purchasing goods or services, and media download, but also to exchange messages between vehicles, through infrastructure applications servers. Bidirectional communications mode can be supported by dedicated DSRC technologies, but more often with wide area networks, such as cellular networks or WiMAX. 3 Centralized Client/Server Technologies Traditionally proposed architectures are based on a centralized approach, where one or more central servers have the responsibility to manage all position updates and queries from involved users—related, for example, to a specific point of interest, to neighborhood discovery or to path planning.
Such an approach has been used in both research and real-world applications, for example to store spatial objects such as restaurant locations, or the polygons which typical maps are made of—streets, buildings, outlines of lakes, coastlines, etc. Moreover, it allows to quickly answer queries such as “find all museums within 2 km of my current location”, “retrieve all road segments within 2 km of my location”, or “find the nearest gas station”. The key idea of the data structure is to group nearby objects and represent them with their minimum bounding rectangle in the next higher level of the tree.
3. , IP traffic) and WAVE-mode Short Messages (WSM). According to the multichannel operation, all vehicular devices have to monitor the CCH during common time intervals (the CCH intervals), and to (optionally) switch to one SCH during the SCH intervals. The described operation allows the safety warning messages to be transmitted on CCH using the WSM protocol, while non-safety data applications, either running over IP or WSM packets, use the SCHs. 4 ITS Applications As vehicles become integrated in an ITS, their “horizon of awareness” drastically increases and an entirely new ecosystem of applications can be created, and even pre-existent applications can greatly enhance their efficiency .
Advanced Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems by Marco Picone, Stefano Busanelli, Michele Amoretti, Francesco Zanichelli, Gianluigi Ferrari