By Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi (auth.), Alberto Alexandre, Marcos Masini, Pier Paolo Maria Menchetti (eds.)
Radiologists, orthopedic and neurological surgeons current the several minimally invasive equipment. Peripheral nerve difficulties and difficulties referring to differential prognosis in distinct occasions similar to among radicular and peripheral nerve trunk lesions are mentioned, pinpointing the importance of other diagnostic instruments. Minimally invasive concepts, applied these days to reduce bone demolition, scarring and danger of recurrence are analyzed. Microdiscectomy is in comparison with the result of intradiscal concepts, and new equipment are mentioned dealing with difficulties reminiscent of epidural fibrotisation, microinstability, osteoporotic or neoplastic or posttraumatic vertebral lesions.
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Extra resources for Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery and Therapy for Spine and Nerves
The lower index was 3, which means that they were still in rehabilitation programs with improvement to be expected. In other treatment modalities the time between the procedure and recovery takes longer than 3 months, and usually the patients keep some degree of inability after the treatment, never reaching group 1 index (Fig. 2). No serious complications were related to the procedure. No adverse effect of the drugs used in injection. No infections. No motor deficit or sphincter disturbance. In one patient it was decided to proceed with an open surgical procedure, the other 31 patients were kept in clinical treatment as described previously (Fig.
Clinically the patients had untreatable low Gender 35 Fig. 1 Gender and Age data. The left bar shows the total number of patients (n¼32) included in the research, separated by gender. The upper part represents 18 females and the lower one 14 males. The graph on the right side shows that a bigger portion of the patients was between 41 to 59 years old Number of Patients 30 Group age in decades 25 18 33,3% 20 26,7% 20,0% 15 10,0% 10 14 3,3% 3,3% 3,3% 5 2 0 Male Female 3 4 5 6 7 8 Minimally Invasive Treatment for Refractory Low Back Pain, Targeted by Epidural Endoscopy with O2/O3 and Steroid Therapy back pain without progressive neurology and no indication to open surgical procedure.
The fulfillment of all the goals of surgery must be guaranteed, including mini-open and microscopic, endoscopic, percutaneous accesses. Regarding the surgical procedure it is considered minimal if causing minimal consequences on the functional unit of the spine, the opposite case is considered maximal, as in the case of fusion (Fig. 6). One of the important aspects of minimally invasive procedures in the spine is that many of those are image guided and include automated steps, which favor reproducibility.
Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery and Therapy for Spine and Nerves by Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi (auth.), Alberto Alexandre, Marcos Masini, Pier Paolo Maria Menchetti (eds.)