By F Benedetti; Christoph Stein; et al
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Extra info for Analgesia
1996) and DRG (Puehler et al. 2004). In addition, the expression of opioid receptors in sensory neurons increases time-dependently during inﬂammation (Zöllner et al. 2003). Subsequently, the axonal transport of opioid receptors to the peripheral nerve terminals is augmented (Hassan et al. 1993; Laduron and Castel 1990). , interleukin 4) through the binding of STAT-6 transcription factors to the μ-opioid receptor gene promoter (Kraus et al. 2001). Other potential mechanisms contributing to enhanced antinociceptive efﬁcacy include an increase in the number of opioid receptor bearing peripheral sensory nerve terminals (Stein et al.
1). Subsequently, the μ- and the κ-receptor were cloned (Meng et al. 1993; Wang et al. 1993). The μ-receptor gene shows approximately 50%–70% homology to the genes encoding for the δ-receptor and κ-receptor. The concept of receptor subtypes has emerged from classical pharmacological data to explain biphasic binding characteristics of opioid receptor ligands Fig. 1 The seven α-helical transmembrane (TM) domains characteristic of the μ-receptor. N-terminal tail and extracellular loops (ECL) are above the TM domains.
9 Side Effects . . . . Acute Opioid Application Cardiovascular System . Respiratory System . . Sedation . . . . . Nausea and Vomiting . Cough Suppression . . Pupil Constriction . . Skeletal Muscle Rigidity . Gastrointestinal System . Histamine Release .
Analgesia by F Benedetti; Christoph Stein; et al