By Vera P. Moutafchieva
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LiS However, practice shows that, in many cases, the local. sipahis also collected the income from village households that were not registered in their name, which led to frequent arguments between the mefkufcu and the timar holders}16 On the other hand, practice also shows that the unregistered households were frequently included in separate new timars even before the due registration had taken place}17 The Official Status of the Timar As far back as the decree that history considers to have been written by Osman I, it was stated that "he to whom a timar is granted cannot be deprived of it without a reason, while he is able [to carry out his obligations].
152 And, consequently, in these cases the feudal landowner (in this case the sultan), received as a has revenues that neither were connected with a given territory, nor were paid by the population that cultivated the has land. On the basis of these facts, it could be pointed out that, during the period in question, the timar was not only a tenancy, a given area of land, but a definite annual income granted by the government to a given person. In the great majority of cases, this income was the result of the feudal exploitation of the dependant populationconsequently, of agrarian origin.
It also represented a danger to the owners of mulks within the empire itself. The campaign of Mehmet II against the Turkish Anatolian aristocracy was merciless. The measures he undertook against the internal representatives of the mulk land ownership were no less harsh. Bourgeois historiographers have been unable to explain the removal and even the murder of senior dignitaries, whose place in the government of the state was hereditary-with Halil <;andarli II in first place. 83 That, however, was the first of a number of measures designed not only to impose the timar as- a system of land ownership, but to impose it at the cost of the mulk system in the struggl~ against its representatives.
Agrarian Relations in the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th Centuries by Vera P. Moutafchieva